The use of genetic engineering, to manipulate living organisms or their components, to create useful commercial products (such as novel pharmaceuticals, increased nutritional value to food, pest-resistant crops or bacterial strains)


A conversion from one state to another. The change in a system's state when observed at different times.


A genetically identical copy of a gene or of an organism.


Making a genetically identical copy of DNA or of an organism.


The process of applying theory to data and observations in order to improve, progress or further scientific understanding.


(v.) - to distinguish, to make different.


Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function.


An organism in the earliest stage of development.




Process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.


Sex cell.

Genetic Modification

A technology that changes the genetic material of a living organism.


Site of cellular respiration.


Cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells.


A change in the base sequence of a gene or chromosome.


A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction.


Cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types.

Reproductive Cloning

Technology that produces genetically identical individuals.


To test or examine for the presence of something (as a disease).

Somatic cell

Body cell.

Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

Moving a cell nucleus and its genetic material from one cell to another.

Stem Cell

Unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells.

Therapeutic Cloning

The production of embryonic stem cells for use in replacing or repairing damaged tissues or organs.


Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into any type of cell.


Differentiation of a cell including at a molecular level.

Vegetative reproduction

A form of asexual reproduction in which offspring grow from a part of a parent plant.


The supply of a product.


Fertilized egg.



Selective breeding

Desirable characteristics:


Dogs with good characteristics are bred together to produce purebred whippets.

Example Whippets (racing dogs) with good characteristics are bred together to create purebred whippets.



Purebred animal are often inbred, there for some people argue selective breeding is bad for dogs and causes chronic disability/problems for the dogs. Many dog breeds have inherited diseases caused by repeated selective breeding.

chronic breathing problems

joint and bone problems


Crosse breading:

Animal breeders can cross different breeds to produce animals with characteristics of both breeds.


This is often done to improve yield. This way a farmer can improve the amount of milk and meat from the offspring that the new breed produces.



A clone is a genetically identical copy of a cell or organism. Lots of organisms reproduce via cloning, This is called asexual reproduction (this is what plants do.)

Identical twins are natural clones, they are formed when an embryo splits in two.

Clones can be made artificially.

Therapeutic cloning

reproductive cloning

Therapeutic cloning is the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer to replace or repairing damaged tissues or organs.

After a few day


  1. The nucleus is removed from a somatic cell and the rest of it is discarded.
  2. Nucleus from an egg cell is also removed.
  3. The nucleus from the somatic cell is inserted into the egg cell.
  4. Somatic cell nucleus is reprogrammed by the egg cell.
  5. The egg receives a tiny electric shock.
  6. The egg begins to divide.
  7. An embryo is formed.


Therapeutic cloning

reproductive cloning

Therapeutic cloning is the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer to replace or repairing damaged tissues or organs.

Therapeutic cloning occurs when cloned embryos created through SCNT are allowed to grow for a few days and then killed for their stem cells.

Reproductive cloning occurs when a copy of another organism  is created through SCNT, it is allowed to grow up to 14 days in a petri dish, and then transplanted into a womb to grow until birth. Reproductive cloning involves creating an animal that is genetically identical to a donor organism through somatic cell nuclear transfer.


therapeutic cloning benefits:



Pros and cons to reproductive cloning:



Cons of reproductive cloning:


Genetic modification


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