Key Words

Key word



Freely chosen activity in free time includes sports, recreation, and tourism


Leisure for enjoyment can be non-professional sports


Professional physical activity


Spending at least one night in a location other than ones home

Sustainable Tourism

Tourism that conserves primary tourism resources and benefits local people

Global Commons

Resources that belong to everyone (oceans). They can be exploited and should be managed carefully

Niche Tourism

The opposite of mass tourism. People that prefer visiting places in/with small numbers (weddings)


Similar to sustainable tourism, but focusing primarily on the environment


Global Middle Class

Disposable Income

Total income minus living costs and taxes

Disease of affluence

Diseases that tend to occur in places of wealth, usually in the elderly (heart, cancer)

Social Media

A marketing platform powered by the tourists themselves


Dispersion of a certain population across the world

Primary tourist resource

Resource whose original purpose differed from tourism, such as natural landscapes, religious buildings, defensive sites

Secondary tourist resource

Resource whose purpose is to please tourists, for example hotels, restaurants and theme parks

Carrying capacity

Maximum number of people required to keep a facility viable

Threshold population

Minimum number of people required to keep a facility viable


Central Business District - is a primary tourist resource

Changing Leisure Patterns

Factors affecting personal participation




Personality, Gender norms, Ethnicity, ‘National Sort’, Culture factors, Religion, Social structures, sports and recreation groups at a local level

Environmental (Physical)

Place of residence (accessibility) - Climate and Terrain


Cost of activities and equipment, Personal affluence, Cost of living} Disposable Income


Government policy, Strategy for L.S.T., Funding, in school PE, setting up of leagues


Age, Health, Sex, Stage in the family cycle



Factors and Trends Affecting Growth of Leisure

Very Developed Country point of view

Factor or Trend


Legislations reducing expected working hours

Increased free time during the day

Greater acceptance of a five-day working week, especially for part time staff

Technological developments making non-leisure activities less time consuming

Reduction in the length of the working week

Increased free time during weekends.

Increase in wages

Increased disposable income, which could go to leisure

Reduction in costs for basic needs

Growth Leisure Activity -> Demand vs Supply

Effective marketing can serve as motivation

Increase of flexibility in self-employment

Allow for self time management

Developments in technology

Development of cheaper modes of transportation, and therefore is more accessible.

Development of online booking systems


Places become closer together through peace and trade

Physical and emotional well-being

Diseases of Affluence

Different stages of development

Existing infrastructure, more disposable income


Societal Variation in Leisure Time




Women tend to participate less in sporting activities due to societal norms

Income level

Higher levels of income allow for more variety in leisures, which may affect leisure time

Education level

Higher levels on education may raise awareness in the benefits of certain leisures

Family size

Smaller families require less care and therefore more free time, yet larger families need more leisure

Age categories

Different age groups have the ability, interest and time to partake in leisure activities

Disposable free time

Different cultures and societies have different expectations/standards for how much one should work and rest

Accessibility and awareness of recreational opportunities

Some types of developments focus on the building social infrastructure (public areas) such as parks. Marketed third party recreations contribute to the recognition.



Categories of Tourism


Reasons for the Growth in Tourism

Chicken and egg analogy  



As the GMS grows, more people can afford traveling. Developments in technology (e.g. booking websites, social media) increase the desirability and accessibility of traveling.

The majority of countries have developed a lot more tourist facilities. The current international sense of security and developments in technology make traveling safer and more accessible.


Tourism at a local and national scale

General trends in placement and features of hotspots


Growth Factors of Hotspots



Government policy

May encourage the development of a hotspot


Setting certain areas for different purposes, some for tourist activities and others for natural preservation

Gateway/Entry points

Some hotspots are not the final destination; gateways are simply passages to the destination


Multiple agencies may advertise the same feature/area resulting in it becoming very popular

Word-of-mouth and social media

In some cases the tourism resources are so appealing that they become popular through simply word-of-mouth, no marketing required


Seasonal vs Diurnal





Tourist influx over during a particular time of year

Tourist influx during particular times on the day


Ski resort (winter)

Beach (summer, when not too hot)

Cities (when light)


Primary and Secondary Tourist Resources



In Urban Areas

In Rural Areas


Most commonly found in the CBD (Central Business District I may be referred to as downtown). They are popular amongst tourist due to their historic value and age. Their original purpose was to attend to local’s needs, but now they’ve been adopted as tourist attractions.

Usually, it’s the entire natural landscape. Human modification such as agriculture may contribute to the attractive of an area. Castles, stately homes and ancient ruins provide as well.


Spaced out, as they are build recently and with tourism in mind. This allows these facilities to cover the whole area with their spheres of influence. In CBDs, they are present in the form of hotels and restaurants. In the outskirts of cities, they may be present in the form of theme parks.

Built to manage tourism over large areas of land (foot baths, tourism centers).

Built around a primary resource to manage demands. This includes hotels, restaurants, shops and car parks.


Sphere of influence

Butler model





Urban Spacial Pattern





Theoretical Map



The greater the tourist resource (in this case settlement area), the greater the sphere of influence. These spheres may intersect, be shared between resources or even be inside one another.



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