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Ways of Knowing (WOKs)


Area of Knowledge (AOKs)


Personal Knowledge

The knowledge that a particular individual has of the world. This consists of two main overlapping components:

  1.  Experiential knowledge (knowledge gained through experience)
  2. Second-hand knowledge (knowledge acquired second-hand culture, school, internet, news media)


Some obstacles to personal knowledge


Shared Knowledge

The complete knowledge which we can communicate to one another (academic knowledge, informal knowledge, and that part of practical know-how that we can communicate verbally or nonverbally).

While shared knowledge can, in theory, be shared by everyone, in practice it is often shared only by groups, for example:




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