Body Systems


Food Type

Elements they contain

Smallest unit



Carbon, hydrogen, oygen


Polysaccharide(e.g starch)


carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen,

Animo acids or peptide

Protein or polypetide


Carbon, hydrogen, oygen

amino acids

Trigelicrides or pho

Key Word/Phrase



Two or more covalently bonded atoms


Large molecules made from repeating subunits.

Concentration gradient

The difference between an area of high concentration and an area of low concentration.


Being able to keep the internal environment constant


Nutrients that help make the body more healthy


Elements that the body needs to stay healthy.


A macro which helps provide bulk to the food to help it pass through the digestive system


Organic material found in all plants that gives long lasting energy


found in fatty foods that helps the immunes system and provides energy


found in all meat that helps build the muscles.


A macromolecule produced by the body that can break down other macromolecules.


A type of enzyme for breaking down starch


Movement of a substance(atoms or molecules) down a concentration gradient or from a high conc. To low conc.

Thing to test for


Positive result

Negative result


Add iodine to food

Iodine becomes black

Iodine stays brown


Add blue biuret reagent solution to the solution  

Solution changes to purple

Solution stys blue


Add benedict's solution to solution. Heat solution  to 70° and wait 5 minutes.

Change in colour to green, orange or red

Stays blue.





-Egg yolk, and butter, fish milk and cheese

-good vision

-healthy skin



Sunlight, fish oils, egg yolk, mushroom

- Helps with calcium absorption, bone development


Spinach and nuts

Prevents CHD;





Folic Acid


Gas exchange

O2 exchanged for CO2 in the lungs


The act of breathing in and out (the replacement of carbon dioxide rich air with fresh air)


Chemical reaction that releases energy inside cells(normally this involves reacting oxygen with glucose)


Breathing in is called inhalation. For this process to take place the following events take place: The diaphragm contracts and flattens and the internal external muscles contract pulling the rib cage up and out. This increases the volume of the chest which causes the pressure to decrease. The pressure inside the chest drops below atmospheric pressure and air moves into the lungs.



  1. Athlete drinks water before the race so that she cools down her body and so that she doesn’t become dehydrated. She needs the water for sweating to maintain body temperature.
  2. Her heart rate speeds up before the race because since she is nervous for the race her body prepares her by releasing adrenaline into her capillaries causing her heart rate to speed up.
  3. Adrenaline is secreted from the adrenal glands which makes the heart beat faster and the liver breaks down it’s energy stor glycogen into glucose providing more fuel for the body.
  4. At 1km her heart rate increases to 140 bpm and her breathing rate doubles.
  5. While running her muscles are doing more work so they need more oxygen and are releasing more waste products. In order to cope with the increased demand for oxygen the lungs begin breathing faster to increase the oxygen supply. In addition, the gas exchange rate is increased to allow more oxygen into the blood. The heart also beats faster and stronger in order for the blood to get the oxygen to the muscles faster.
  6. The athletes drink at 10km in order to cool down their body and rehydrate.
  7. If the body’s core temperature heats up to much the bodys chemical reactions will cease to function.
  8. The blood is diverted to the heart,muscles,skin and brain in order to increase heat loss
  9. The problems associated with with sweating is dehydration, this is because sweating uses up the body's water. Dehydration cause your body to no longer function.
  10. The runner loses 5 kilos in water
  11. The runner adjusts tot his whieght loss using her kidneys.

Health definition: Health is having complete mental, physical and social well being. It’s not just being free from sickness or wounds.


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