American Civil rights movement

This case study belongs to the prescribed subject: Rights and protest.

See also: Case study 2: Apartheid South Africa

Nature and characteristics of discrimination

Racially-Biased Institutions in the South

Jim Crow Laws

Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.

Truman Speech

In truman speech he says that:

Brown v Board of Education

Key Players Leading up to Trial

Charles Houston Hamilton was the chief of the NAACP’s legal team, and modified policy to target graduate schools, the highest level of education. He encountered a lot of racism towards African-Americans while fighting in WW1, which motivated him to fight. He led many of the legal challenges to the Jim Crow laws in regards to education prior to Brown v Board.

Walter White was a lawyer, member of the NAACP and prominent politician in New York, who worked under Truman. He was involved as the legal representative of the NAACP in many of the legal cases.

Justice Warren was seen as the most liberal and progressive Chief Judge in US history. He was three term governor of California. Appointed by Eisenhower, who later regretted it. He ruled over Brown v Board of Education II, as well as some other famous ones later on.

Dwight D Eisenhower disagreed with desegregation, and took as long as possible to respond and uninvolved himself - republican

Distinction between Brown I and Brown II

Table of cases

Name 

Case 

Decision 

1936, Law school

Murray v Maryland

NAACP supported Donaly Murray in his fight to get into law school at Maryland University - WIN

1938, Law school

Gaines V Missouri

Houston’s last case, admitting Gaines into state university law school, Supreme Court intervention - WIN

Law school

Sweatt V Painter 

Sweatt to get into Texas University, despite segregated black uni - Supreme Court agrees facilities are unequal - WIN

State school

Briggs V Elliott

Lawsuit among primary and secondary students against S. Carolina school, appealed and segregation within schools unconstitutional declared by Supreme Court  - WIN

State schools

Brown v Board of Education of Topeka 

Blanket for simultaneous cases regarding state school education, but Topeka specifically to do with primary students. Overturned Plessy v Ferguson in supreme court after second ruling, desegregation of schools on a federal level - WIN

States that disegrated vs resisted following B v B

DisegratedResisted
  • Maryland
  • Arkansas
  • Kentucky
  • Missouri
  • Virginia!
  • Texas
  • Florida

Virginian Resistance to B v B:

Protests and action

Montgomery Bus Boycotts (1955-7)

Short term   +

Short term   -

Long term   +

Long term   -

Boycotts spread to other cities

Disrupted the city

Increase in violence:

 - 15-y-o girl attacked

 - Bombings of MLK and Nixon homes, and 2 others, and 4 churches

Mayor Gale enforces segregation

90 leaders arrested

MLK assumes figurehead role


First step towards Civil Rights

White attitudes did not fail

Freedom Rides (1961)

Under JFK - Civil Right activists wanted to test him out

What were the rides?

Media coverage

Freedom Summer (1964)

Bob Moses

Success or Not?

YesNo
  • Legislative changes
    • Paved way for Civil Rights act of 1965
  • Controversy meant greater representation of blacks in 
  • Members of KKK in government systems
    • Led to 
  • Creation of Mississippi Freedom 
  • Bombings and violence from whites
  • Johnson lost Southern support
    • Only 2 delegates sent to Democratic National Convention
  • Local newspapers against it

Voting rights act (1965)

Causes

Protests

Resistance

Impacts

What was the response to Bloody Sunday in March of 1965?

Civil Rights Act, 1964

US federal government explained

 

African American Rights 1964-68

 

CHICAGO, 1965

DETROIT, 1967

LOS ANGELES, 1965

CLEVELAND, 1966 (Hough Riots)

 

Carl Stokes

 

Key Figures to explore further

 

Black Power and Black Nationalism (1966-1975)

 

 

 

 



Black Nationalism Characteristics

 

Groups and Individuals

 

 

 

Problems in Northern Cities

 

Also integration vs separatism

Also both led important organisations

Also both not supported entirely by their groups (or even in part, in some cases)

 

 

Civil Rights Act 1964

Voting Rights Act 1965

Fair Housing Act 1968

The 24th Amendment 

Provisions 

Voting rights

Desegregation of accommodations and facilities

Banned discrimination in federal institutes

Banned employment discrimination

Expanded on commission outlined in 1960 Civil Rights Act

Attorney General could assign examiners to observe voter registration processes on a state level

Barred discrimination in sale of real estate

Illegalised shifting of price on racial terms

Made 24th Amendment illegal

Poll tax banned on national level

Impacts 

Increased federal court influence to black matters at a state level

Paved way for equal rights for women

Outlawed Jim Crow completely

Stop local governments from abusing systems

Actively working for equality now

Meant desegregation of districts (to some extent, duh)

Poor African Americans could vote

Poll tax still existed on local and state level



Perspectives:

Clayborne Carson - the Black Power and Civil Rights movement are the same

Adam Fairclough - whites also very involved in Civil Rights movement

Steven F Lawson - government involvement was crucial

 

Essay Points to Make

The rise of radical African American activism (‘65-8) damaged the efforts of MLK to achieve racial equality in the US.

(to what extent do I agree with that)

 

 

Feminism in the Americas (1945-2000)

Suffrage Six Examples

 

US AND CANADA

 

Causes

Statistics

 

Kennedy set up Commission on Status of Women

Formation of NOW (National Organisation for Women)



8 women in Congress from ‘47-‘49

34 women in Congress in ‘91-‘93

 

 



Resistance



USA PSE impacts

Social

Pro

Abolishment of Head and Master rule, 1979 with Louisiana being the last to repeal.

Roe vs Wade legalised abortion

Con

The Concerned Women for America protested against feminism and wanted to enforce traditional roles

Economic

Pro

More women going into education - as many men with a university degree as men today in the US

Lilly Ledbetter 

Con

“Glass ceiling” - women earning 59.7% of men’s wages in ‘71

 

Cuba PSE impacts

Political

Pro

Equal no. of women to men in government by 2006

Con

Only 16% in government in 1990 - took a long time for change to come

Social

Pro

Cuban Family Code 1975 outlawing sexist attitudes

Con

Traditional values still existed in private, if not in public, and came out with regime’s collapse

Economic

Pro

1975 Cuban Family Code gave 6 weeks paid maternity leave and 1 year job security

Con

Pro-female imbalance (women worked 22.28h a week, while men only 4.52h) - forced many women who did not want to work to do so

 

Argentina PSE impacts

Political

Pro

Abolishment of Head and Master rule, 1979 with Louisiana being the last to repeal.

Con

The Concerned Women for America protested against feminism and wanted to enforce traditional roles

Social

Pro

Abolishment of Head and Master rule, 1979 with Louisiana being the last to repeal.

Con

The Concerned Women for America protested against feminism and wanted to enforce traditional roles

Economic

Pro

More women going into education - as many men with a university degree as men today in the US

Con

“Glass ceiling” - women earning 59.7% of men’s wages in ‘71





Differences between US and Argentina

 

Differences between US and Cuba

 

Similarities Between All Three



FEMINISM ESSAY TEMPLATE



YOUTH AND POPULAR CULTURE, 1960s and 70s

 

Music

Examples:

 

Hippies, dude

Liberal drugs and sex

SHOCKING new clothes

Abortion rights cos of all that free sex

Groovy black rights and scandalous media

Anti-‘Nam stuff

 

Political influence on movement:

 

Free Speech - political

 

Demographics - social

 

SDS - Students for a Democratic Society

 

500,000 people protest



Canada Youth Movement

Similarities Between Canada and the US

 

Hispanic Rights

Migration to the US

Political impacts



IMPORTANT - Causes and Effects of Protest

 

KEY FIGURE - CESAR CHAVEZ





KEY GROUP - BROWN BERETS

 

KEY GROUP - YOUNG LORDS ORGANISATION

 

KEY INDIVIDUAL - DOLORES HUERTA

 

KEY FIGURE - REIES TIJERINA




INDIGENOUS RIGHTS MOVEMENTS

Guatemala

 

 

 

 

How to write a good paper 3

 

 

Editors

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